The fourteenth day of every lunar month or the day before the new moon is known as Shivratri so there are twelve Shivratris that occur in a calendar year, Mahashivratri, the one that occurs in February-March i.e Phalguna or Magha hindu maonth of the most spiritual significance.
Scientific Importance - On this night, the northern hemisphere of the planet is positioned in such a way that there is a natural upsurge of energy in a human being. This is a day when nature is pushing one towards one’s spiritual peak. It is to make use of this, that in this tradition, we establish a certain festival which is night-long. One of the fundamentals of this night-long festival is to ensure that – to allow this natural upsurge of energies to find their way – you remain with your spine vertical – you stay awake.
Shiva Devotees, celebrate the day by fasting and offering special prayers to Lord Shivaby pouring Milk and water on the shivling and adorning it with flowers , datura and Bel Patra.
Pujas and remedies, which are very beneficial , if performed on Mahashivratri
What should be done on Shivratri
1. Placing energized Parad Shivling in home or in office on Shivratri has special importance.
2. Wear Rudraksha Beads on this day. Rudraksh beads are very much loved by Lord Shiva.
3. Offer Milk and Water to shiva by pouring it on shivlinga.
4. Chant "Om Namah Shivaye" as many malas you can chant.
5. Wear Gemstone as per your horoscope.
If you are suggested with certain remedies by any astrologer , do perform them on this day as this is one of the most auspicous days to perform remedies for planetary Dosha.
Read more about LORD SHIVA here.